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Laws of Bahai FaithBahá'í laws are laws and ordinances used in the Bahá'í Faith and are a fundamental part of Bahá'í practice. The laws are based are authenticated texts from Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith
Important Laws of the Bahai Faith
Bahá'í law is presented as a set of general principles and guidelines and individuals must apply them as they best seem fit.
HistoryThe Bahá'í Faith had its roots in the Bábí Religion which was started by the Báb in the mid 1800s in Persia. Originally the Bábís adhered to the Islamic laws, but this changed when the Báb wrote a Bábí code of law in the Bayán which replaced Islamic law. However, the Báb's laws were not widely practiced by the Bábís, and instead many Bábís became antinomian; they also marked their new religious identity by deliberately not abiding by Islamic practice. Bahá'u'lláh, as both his initial role as Bábí leader, and then as the one who was messianic figure that the Báb spoke, condemned the antinomian tendencies of the Bábís. He eventually at the request of his followers wrote a book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, while he was in Acre, Palestine.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that the ordinances of his book of laws was the best method for the maintenance of world order and security, and that Bahá'ís should obey the the laws with "joy and gladness", and that true liberty could be obtained by obedience to the laws.
Bahai Faith and GradualismBahá'u'lláh stated that the observance of the laws that he prescribed should be subject to "tact and wisdom", and that they do not cause "disturbance and dissension." Bahá'u'lláh thus provided for the progressive application of his laws; for example certain Bahá'í laws are only applicable to Middle Eastern Bahá'ís such as the limit to the period of engagement, while any Bahá'í may practice the laws if they so decide. Other Bahá'í laws such as the prohibition to drink alcohol have also been applied gradually in countries where it goes against social norms, and for which most Bahá'ís are new to the religion. Shoghi Effendi also stated that certain other laws, such as criminal laws, that are dependent upon the existence of a predominantly Bahá'í society would only be applicable in a possible future Bahá'í society. He also stated that if the laws were in conflict with the civil law of the country where a Bahá'í lives the laws could not be practiced. Furthermore some laws and teachings are, according to Bahá'í teaching, not meant to be applied at the present time and their application depends on decisions by the Universal House of Justice.
Individual Bahai ConscienceIn Bahá'í literature the laws are not seen as a constricting code, or a ritual, but are described as the "choice wine", and a means to happiness. The laws are generally presented as a set of general principles and guidelines which each individual Bahá'í must apply them to their own lives as they see fit. Bahá'í law and teachings do not include details on many aspects of life, and the successive heads of the religion have have been reluctant to prescribe specific and detailed codes of Bahá'í behaviour; for example the heads of the religion have stated that details of Bahá'í behaviour, such as how to dress, are a matter of individual choice and not Bahá'í law. This is in contrast to the provisions of Islamic law.
The practice of Bahá'í law is firmly placed on individual conscience, understanding and reasoning. The Bahá'í laws are not considered as binding to anyone until they become a Bahá'í, and becoming a Bahá'í is not conditional on a person's level of adherence to the laws; an individual is expected to gradually apply laws on a personal basis. Bahá'ís are expected to follow the laws not because they will be punished for breaking them, but instead because they love Bahá'u'lláh and that they fear God. The teachings of the Bahá'í Faith state that individuals are answerable to God. The observance of personal laws, such as prayer or fasting, is the sole responsibility of the individual, but some laws may be enforced to a degree by Bahá'í institutions, by the loss of Bahá'í administrative rights, if they bring the Bahá'í community into public disrepute.
Prayer in the Bahá'í Faith and Obligatory Bahá'í prayersThe act of prayer is one of the most important Bahá'í laws for individual discipline and Bahá'í are enjoined to pray daily. Prayer in the Bahá'í Faith consists of two distinct types, obligatory prayer and devotional (general) prayer. The purpose of prayer in the Bahá'í Faith is to get closer to God and to Bahá'u'lláh and to help better one's own conduct and to request divine assistance.
Bahá'ís must individually recite an obligatory prayer each day, using fixed words and form prescribed by Bahá'u'lláh. Obligatory prayer is performed individually while facing the Qiblih, preceded by ablutions. Certain exemptions from obligatory prayer are given to those who are ill, in danger, and women in their courses
In addition to the daily obligatory prayer, Bahá'í scripture directs believers daily to offer devotional prayer as well as to meditate and study sacred scripture. In contrast with the fixed form prescribed for obligatory prayers, there is no set form for devotions and meditations, though the devotional prayers written by the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith and collected in prayer books are held in high esteem.
Nineteen Day FastThe Bahá'í fast is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which Bahá'í are asked adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast. Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í, and its chief purpose is spiritual; to reinvigorate the soul and bring the person closer to God.
During the period of fasting, from March 2 through March 20, Bahá'ís in good health between the ages of 15 and 70 abstain from eating and drinking. Exemptions are available for people who are travelling, ill, pregnant, nursing, menstruating, or engaged in heavy labour. Fasting is an individual spiritual obligation, and cannot be enforced by Bahá'í institutions.
Bahai Marriage and family lifeThe Bahá'í teachings recommend marriage, but it is not obligatory. Marriage is emphasized as an assistance to one's self, as well as for the benefit of society; it is seen as both a physical relationship and a spiritual relationship that would continue in all the worlds of God.
The requirements of Bahá'í marriage include that the partners be over the age of 15, and is dependent on the consent of the couple and all their living biological parents, so to strengthen the ties between the families. According to the Bahá'í teachings, sexuality is a normal part of married life and is intended to enhance the relationship. However, sexual relationships are permitted only between a man and woman who are married. This precludes marriages that are homosexual or polygamous as well as any sexual relationship outside of marriage. Interreligious marriages are permitted, and interracial marriages are encouraged. Divorce is permitted, although discouraged, and is granted after a year of separation if the couple is unable to reconcile their differences.
The Bahá'í teachings state that parents need to raise their children to be moral and religious, but not fanatical. Parents are required to provide an education to their children, and children have a duty to obey their parents, which is seen as obeying God. Shoghi Effendi stated that preserving family unity is of utmost importance, and Bahá'ís are counselled to balance their desire to serve the religion with their responsibilities as parents, spouses and children.
InheritanceIn the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Bahá'u'lláh wrote that all Bahá'ís must write a will where they have complete freedom in determining how to dispose of their property. Bahá'u'lláh, however, did create a schedule of inheritance in case of intestacy, that is, when the individual dies without leaving a will. The system of inheritance in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas is based on the provisions written by the Báb and provides for distribution of the deceased's estate among seven categories of heirs.: children, spouse, father, mother, brothers, sisters, and teachers, with higher categories obtaining a larger share. In cases where some of the categories of heirs does not exist, the share falls partly to the children and partly to the Local Spiritual Assembly. The distribution among heirs is uneven: children receive nine parts; the spouse receives eight; the father, seven; the mother, six; the brothers, five; the sisters, four; and the teachers, three.
Bahai Faith on Alcohol, Drugs and TobaccoBahá'ís are forbidden to drink alcohol or to take drugs, except by a doctor's order. The reason being that God has given human beings reason and intoxicants take that away and lead the mind astray. The non-medicinal use of opium and other mind-altering drugs are particularly condemned in the Bahá'í scriptures. Bahá'ís are also asked to try to avoid working in jobs that involve the manufacturing or large-scale sale of alcohol and avoid any involvement in the drug trade. Smoking tobacco is not forbidden but is discouraged.
Other Bahai LawsOther Bahai Laws that have been prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas include:
The Universal House of JusticeThe Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Bahá'í Faith. It is a legislative institution with the authority to supplement and apply the laws of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, and exercises a judicial function as the highest appellate institution in the Bahá'í administration. The institution was defined in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's successor, and was officially established in 1963 as the culmination of the Ten Year Crusade, an international Bahá'í teaching plan.
Its nine members are elected every five years from the male membership in good standing of the world community by an electoral college consisting of all the members of each Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly throughout the world. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice and its members reside in Haifa, Israel, on the slope of Mount Carmel.
While being empowered to legislate on matters, the Universal House of Justice has, since its inception, limited its exercise of this function. Instead it has generally provided guidance to Bahá'ís around the world through letters and messages. The books and documents published by the Universal House of Justice are considered authoritative and its legislative decisions are considered infallible to Bahá'ís. The institution has also collected and published extracts from the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá.
Seat of the Universal House of Justice
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